Both Capability-Based Planning (CBP) and Architecture Patterns, two of 14 techniques in the TOGAF Standard, Version 9.2, are linked to Building Blocks (packages of functionality contributing to capability). With CBP, any decisions about Building Blocks must be linked to business imperatives, strategies, goals, objectives, priorities, requirements, etc. Architecture Patterns are combination of building blocks to address a recurring problem or opportunity. Gap Analysis is a major theme in TOGAF and also relates directly to Building Blocks. Therefore, everyone wanting to know more about TOGAF needs to grasp this critical point, one that makes TOGAF clearly one of the most important EA Frameworks in the world.
EA Capability (Preliminary Phase)
What gaps in Building Blocks exist for the appropriate EA Capability? The Request for Architecture Work should highlight which gaps exist related to the understanding, commitment and support of stakeholders.
Architecture Cycle Scoping (Phase A –Architecture Vision)
What Building Blocks are needed for the new or enhanced Business Capability? This can be clarified with TOGAF’s Business Scenario technique, Stakeholder Management, an Interoperability Requirements analysis, and a Business Transformation Readiness Assessment. Serious gaps could also be addressed with the use of the Risk Management technique. The Statement of Architecture Work helps document what must be done architecturally to better define the gaps.
Architecture Definition (Phases B-D – Business Architecture, Information Systems Architecture, and Technology Architecture)
What are the gaps between the baseline and target capabilities (and capabilities are made up of Building Blocks)? TOGAF has a Gap Analysis technique, especially to capture these and feed them into Phase E (Opportunities and Solutions). Of course, we are still looking at Interoperability and Risk Management considerations, too. TOGAF’s Architecture Definition Document and its derivative, the Architecture Requirements Specifications Document, helps us keep track of what we are learning about gaps and how to potentially fill them.
Identification of Work Packages/Building Blocks (Phases E&F – Opportunities & Solutions and Migration Planning)
What Building Blocks are required to fill the gaps between Baseline and Target Capability to achieve the Architecture Vision? TOGAF has a Consolidated Gaps Matrix to help keep track of these and an Implementation Factor Matrix to capture ideas related to the Gap Analysis. TOGAF also has the Architecture Definition Increments Table and the Architecture State Evolution Table to track the sequencing of the work packages (Solution Building Blocks -- SBBs) and the Business Value Assessment technique to help decide on their sequencing – all related of course to choices to fill identified gaps (list of Architecture Building Blocks – ABBs). We show progression with the Architecture Roadmap and clarify details with the Implementation and Migration Plan.
Phase G: Implementation Governance
Oversight of Implementation Projects with Architecture Contracts and Architecture Compliance Reviews is critical in this Phase. Potential gaps between the EA Specification and Implementation Project’s architecture must be addressed. In addition, the same for between Operations Management Capability and Implementation Project evolution.
Phase H: Architecture Change Management
How substantial is a capability gap, whether related to the EA Capability or any other Business Capability? If it is a rather straightforward and non-critical one, perhaps a Change Request would suffice to address it. If more substantial or critical, maybe a Request for Architecture Work may be necessary.
The iteration approach intrinsic to the Architecture Development Method (ADM) requires frequent reviews and updates of the Gap Analyses done in Phases B-D, thus resulting in evolving architecture requirements.
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